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2015年大学英语四级长篇阅读备考技巧

高分技巧 考拉网 2015-08-27 00:00:00 分享到:
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[摘要]首先考生在阅读文章时整体把握文章的结构和脉络,熟悉文章的写作思路,基本能做到理解每题的中心思想后,能大体定位到文章的相应部分。

  答题技巧

  1.整体把握文章的脉络至关重要。

  段落信息匹配题的题目的顺序与文章的行文顺序完全不符,这就要求考生在阅读文章时整体把握文章的结构和脉络,熟悉文章的写作思路,基本能做到理解每题的中心思想后,能大体定位到文章的相应部分,而不是漫无目的地在全文的每个段落里搜寻。如样题中的文章:首先引出话题;中间部分主要谈论两方面的内容—大学在全球网罗人才和开展工作,同时大学也在重塑研究方法;最后是大学全球化的影响和作用。把文章这样分成四个部分以后,根据每个题目的内容,就可以找到大体的位置。

  2.准确理解题目的内容是前提。

  每一道题都是原文信息的再现或转述,只有理解了题目所述内容,才能做好后面的段落信息定位。理解题目内容的关键是:抓句子的主干。冗长的句子,只要抓住了其主干,就不难理解句子的主要含义了。

  3.找准题目中的定位关键词是关键。

  每一道题都是原文信息的再现或转述,只要找准关键词才能准确定位到原文的段落中。关键词多为:a. 名词或名词短语,这类词是题目和文章谈论的对象,同义替换的可能性较小,是比较可靠的定位关键词,如样题中第46题中的American universities, global careers, internship 都可以在原文中直接找到;b.数字,如数量、年份等,这类词同义替换的可能性非常小,是较理想的定位关键词,如样题中第47题中的3.9 percent, 是原文信息的再现;c. 专有名词,如人名、地名、机构名、特殊物质等,这类词几乎没有同义替换或转述的可能性,是非常理想的定位关键词,如样题中第55题中的Danah Boyd就是一个专有名词,可以在原文中直接找到。

  高分技巧

  段落信息匹配题的一般解题步骤是:读题并确定关键词(中心词)——去原文中定位关键词——分析定位句——分析题干——确定答案。具体的解题技巧如下:

  1.用“打包”方法对付乱序

  把整组题全部一次性吃透,然后去原文从头到尾定位。否则,考生如果按照顺序逐题解答,时间会严重不足,最好是文章一遍看下来,能找到所有的信息。此外,考生应该注意定位原文的过程中,一定要脑、眼和手并用:眼是肯定要用的,不用脑会导致忽视同义转换,不用手(笔)会使我们处于走马观花的状态,然后会怀疑自己是不是漏掉了信息而反复地看。

  2.“吃透”题干准确判断关键词(中心词)至关重要

  如果没吃透题干,就无法准确判断关键词或中心词,就有可能对原文的重要信息没感觉。一般来说,题干关键词或中心词为实词以及一些数字、专有名词等。

  3.在解题的先后顺序上,采用先易后难的策略

  采用由易到难的解题策略,可以提升考生的解题信心。对于那些答题线索较少的题干细节信息,考生可留在最后再解答。在解答这类较难的题目时,考生可快速阅读原文中仍未选过的段落的主题句(通常为第一句、第二句或最后一句),然后根据段落大意与题干中的细节信息进行匹配。

  例:Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains in information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  文章大意:本文主要介绍了使用媒体对孩子的大脑的影响。A、B段提出主题:使用媒体对孩子的大脑会造成影响。C-E段通过各种研究说明使用媒体对大脑有什么影响。F、G段分别介绍了两种观点。最后两段说明了作者的观点以及他如何解决这一问题。

  46. According to a 2009 study, people who did a lot of media multitasking made more fault on the test.

  解析:定位于C段第2句:But a 2009 study found that when extraneous(与正题无关的) information was presented, participants who (on the basis of their answers to a study questionnaire) did a lot of media multitasking performed worse on a test than those who don’t do much media multitasking.

  47. In order to help his son get more sleep, the author forbids his son to use electronic devices after 9:30 p.m.

  解析:定位于I段第2、3句:I’ve set some rules that are designed to aid his social and cognitive development: no Facebook during school, and no electronic devices after 9:30 p.m. The latter prohibition is designed to help him get more sleep, which, according to some studies, is when our brains prune connections among neurons. Preserving and speeding up the ones that matter and flushing out the ones that don’t.

  48. The saturated media universe may have weakened our top-down focus.

  解析:定位于D段第二句:We obviously need both for survival, whether in the wilds of prehistory or while crossing a street today, but our saturated(饱和的) media universe has perhaps privileged the latter form and is wiring our kids’ brains differently.

  49. 8 to 18 years old children spend about 11 hours using media per day if each content stream is counted separately.

  解析:定位于B段第3、4句:A Kaiser Family Foundation report released last year found that on average, children ages 8 to 18 spend 7 hours and 38 min. a day using entertainment media. And if you count each content stream separately- a lot kids, for example, text while watching TV—they are logging almost 11 hours of media usage a day.

  50. According to Stone, adolescents may do better than their parent generation on learning how to prioritize tasks.

  解析:定位于G段:Stone has observed something similar in technology use among adolescents:….. Perhaps this is a sign that our kids will be better than we are at learning how to prioritize tasks—something that will come in handy when they become workers and spouses and parents.

  51. Focused learners can do high-level thinking and may get well-paying jobs more probably.

  解析:定位于E段:Multitaskers’ reliance on rote habit would be all well and good if we want our offspring to work on assembly lines, but to do the kind of high-level thinking that experts agree will be key to getting well-paying jobs, we’d better exercise our collective hippocampus.

  52. Multiple interruptions during kids’ sleep time may lead to trouble on their cognition and body the next day.

  解析:定位于I段:Even if kids get 9 to 10 hours of sleep but sustain multiple interruptions—from, say, a buzzing iPhone next to the pillow—they will suffer cognitively and feel tired the next day.

  53. What the author worries about is that his kids’ online activity may have bad effect on their brains.

  解析:定位于A段倒数第2句:What I worry about, as a sociobiologist, is not what my kids are doing on the Internet but what all this connectivity is doing to their brains.

  54. According to UCLA scientists, the focusers and the multitaskers rely on different parts of their brain in learning.

  解析:定位于E段第2句:In 2006, UCLA scientists showed that multitaskers and focused learners deploy(调动)different parts of the brain when they learn the same thing.

  55. According to Danah Boyd, the hyperprotective way parents behave is the real reason for kids’ continuous partial attention.

  解析:定位于F段第1句:Some technology observers, like Danah Boyd, a fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society, claim that social media are getting a bum rap(不公正的对待) and that the real problem lies in the hyperprotective way we parent today.

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