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当前位置:视频首页>> when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthesis: (myOptionalVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionalVar.foo)?? ---- ---- FTL stack trace ("~" means nesting-related): - Failed at: ${pec.id!""} [in template "ty/front/onlineclass/cms/courseContent.ftl" at line 194, column 45] ---- Java stack trace (for programmers): ---- freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException: [... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance(InvalidReferenceException.java:116) at freemarker.core.UnexpectedTypeException.newDesciptionBuilder(UnexpectedTypeException.java:60) at freemarker.core.UnexpectedTypeException.(UnexpectedTypeException.java:40) at freemarker.core.NonHashException.(NonHashException.java:46) at freemarker.core.Dot._eval(Dot.java:45) at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:78) at freemarker.core.DefaultToExpression._eval(DefaultToExpression.java:80) at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:78) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalAndCoerceToString(Expression.java:82) at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:40) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:312) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:62) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:312) at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:290) at freemarker.template.Template.process(Template.java:312) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.processTemplate(FreeMarkerView.java:367) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.doRender(FreeMarkerView.java:284) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.renderMergedTemplateModel(FreeMarkerView.java:234) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractTemplateView.renderMergedOutputModel(AbstractTemplateView.java:167) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractView.render(AbstractView.java:303) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.render(DispatcherServlet.java:1244) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.processDispatchResult(DispatcherServlet.java:1027) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:971) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:893) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:967) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:858) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:624) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:843) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:731) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:303) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter.doFilterInternal(HiddenHttpMethodFilter.java:77) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:107) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at com.alibaba.druid.support.http.WebStatFilter.doFilter(WebStatFilter.java:123) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:85) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:107) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:220) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:122) at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:505) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:169) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:103) at org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve.invoke(AccessLogValve.java:956) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:116) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:423) at org.apache.coyote.http11.AbstractHttp11Processor.process(AbstractHttp11Processor.java:1079) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$AbstractConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:625) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.AprEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(AprEndpoint.java:2517) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.AprEndpoint$SocketProcessor.run(AprEndpoint.java:2506) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1145) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:615) at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:744)